EFFECT OF POVERTY ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITIZENS

Effect of poverty on educational development of the citizens.  a case study of federal polytechnic, oko, students. Download the project work from chapter 0ne to five PDF.

CHAPTER ONE     

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

This work is based on the effect of poverty on educational development of the citizens with a particular reference to Federal Polytechnic Oko in Anambra State. The effect of poverty here is those things that can bring ineffective growth in the educational development of the citizens. It is pertinent to know that poverty in any establishment hampered achievement of its targeted objectives.

Improving the educational attainment of the population is an important requirement to reduce poverty amid the populace and foster development. Hence, it is imperative to understand the factors that affect educational attainment, particularly in the context of developing countries where poverty is a major impediment in access to education. In the last three decades, the level of poverty in Nigeria has been on the increase, rising from 28.1 percent in 1980 to about 64.4 percent in 2004 (FOS 1999 and ADB 2010). This increase has been observed by a number of studies that the factor responsible among others include; limited access to resources, lack of skills, location disadvantage, social exclusion, introduction of Structural Adjustment Reforms and changes in domestic economic policies that have resulted in price and exchange rate instability and increase in unemployment. Others factors are natural disasters such as drought and man-made disasters like wars, environmental degradation etc (Vahie 1993, De Haans 2000, Sindingre 2000, Sengupta 2003, and Bradshaw 2006).

The poverty situation in Nigeria has reached an alarming stage as more than 45% of the population live

below the poverty line, while 67% of the poor are extremely poor. For example, the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) report for the period 1980-1996, indicates that 67 million Nigerians are living below the poverty level. The reports also indicates that during the period of 1980-1985, the percentage of rural dwellers and urban inhabitants in the core poverty brackets rose from 6.5 and 3.0 per cent to 14.8 and 7.5 per cent respectively. Also, within the same period, the percentage of moderately poor in the rural areas rose from 21.8 to 36.6 per cent and 14.2 to 30.2 percent, respectively. The report also indicates that the number of the rich in both rural and urban areas dropped from 71.7 and 82.8 percent to 48.6 and 62.6 per cent, respectively. The introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986 witnessed reduction in poverty among the middle class of the society, while the menace of poverty among the poor increased. For instance, the poverty level among the rural dwellers increased from 14.8 per cent in 1985 to 15.8 per cent in 1992, while the middle class of the society decreased during the period. The percentage of the core poor in the urban centres increased from 7.5 percent in 1985 to 10.7 percent in 1992, while those in moderately poor bracket dropped from 30.3% in 1985 to 26.8% in 1992.

However, the paradox of this issue which is baffling my research after so much observation in IsuaAkoko, Ondo State in Nigeria is how this situation was allowed to grow in the midst of abundant human and natural resources. It is really lamentable to see a country that was given the title the “giant of Africa” becoming an “ant of Africa”, Beside, it is sorrowful to see a country such as Nigeria with abundant natural resources and copious human capital, but with 70 percent of its people living below the poverty line and surviving on less than $2 per day. Poverty has torn the process of education apart and deprived people from getting access to it.

Educations of the citizens are faced with numerous problems which in turn affect the growth of such establishment. It is the therefore in the light of the forgoing that aroused my interest to embark on this research study with a view to finding out the effects, causes and suggest possible solutions to the effect of poverty on educational development of the citizens with a particular reference to Federal Polytechnic, Oko students, Anambra state.

Nevertheless, formal education in Nigeria has been as old as the coming of the colonial masters. Its existence is not mysterious. They came in with the intention of extending their superior administration, religion and culture to West African countries and also with the intention of engaging in commercial activities with the inhabitants of those countries. When they came to the shores of these countries e.g Nigeria, they were unfortunately unable to communicate with the people in their language. They devised to teach the people the ways of their life, their language, so some agreed with them and it makes those that agree to be wiser than those that rejected the idea.

Since the formal introduction of education, it has been identified by some beneficiaries that education is a librating force, librating people from the crunches of illiteracy, superstition, inferiority complex and other barbaric actions. But inspite of all these advantages bequeathed to us by education, it has been infested and confronted with so many problems which among them include poverty. You might want to know the causes and solution to economic recession in Nigeria.

Poverty has completely crippled the development of education in Nigeria. Right from time when education was formally established in the country with the imposition of some little amount of money on each student, many people who would have become the ambassadors and policy makers of this our country could not afford to pay such money then and it has absolutely jeopardized their future. The education at that time was left for few who were privileged to be born into royal family who were engaged in shabby business of slave trade or the family of wealthy farmers who supplies the European traders the raw materials they were looking for.

Furthermore, the government later identified that it has a very big role to play about the education of its citizens. It was observed that the richness and greatness of country depend on the qualitative and quantitative education given to the citizens. Now, the government has been turned out to be an obstacle to education by one allotting a reasonable percentage of its revenue to the education of the citizens. The international communities have considered the plight of the citizens of the developing countries on their educational development and the difficulties poverty has posed on it. This can be manifestly seen through the activities of the UNICEF, an organ of the world body U.N.O. This therefore, examined the effect on poverty educational development of the Nigeria citizens. Using Federal Polytechnic Oko student as a case study.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The yardstick to measure the extent of the educational development of the citizen depends on the reasoning ability of the people. The behaviour, the approach to solving problems and the physical appearance of the citizens. It is obvious that education is very essential especially now that almost everybody wants to be educated and enlightened. Many people want to be literate so as to be able to be informed because he who is not informed is definitely deformed and he who is deformed is abnormal.

What motivates the researcher to write on this topic is that, poverty as a problem does not go alone. It goes with numerous problems that could be completely inextricable from it. It drags some other problems along such as malnutrition, low standard of living, shabby and tattered dresses.

Furthermore, with the observation of this problem, Baba Danjuma (2002) viewed that “the pauper lacks the resources to send his child to school. And even in communities where education is free, the pauper child still faces an uphill task because the hunger of the body impedes the proper nourishment of the mind”. From the above explanation, it could be seen that poverty hinders the proper growth and development of children intellectually, educationally, psychologically and otherwise.

Persons who have low per capital income will have their educational development impaired as they cannot have access to those things that make life worth a living. This study delved into how poverty affects educational development of the Nigerian citizen with a view to finding solution to it

 

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this work is to expose the threats and hindrances that poverty has posed on education development of the citizens.

To evaluate whether poverty is a condition that is desirable or undesirable and criteria for measuring poverty.

To ascertain whether the effect of poverty on educational development is a seasonal or permanent experience. Also to determine if the existence of poverty is caused by the citizens or the government or by both or either of them.

Also, to determine and suggest how best to eradicate poverty and improved the standard of education acquisition among the citizen.

Finally, to let the citizens understand the importance of education in their lives despite the financial constraints.

1.4       SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

This research work is significant in the sense that it has exposed the needs for poverty alleviation in the country a sit has to do with the life wire of the society and create better awareness about the threats poverty has posed on our education.

Moreover, this work will help us to study how our country’s development policy can help to reduce the effect of poverty and subsequently improved the educational development of the citizens thereby eliminating the permanent or seasonal occurrence of poverty in the midst of its inhabitants. The knowledge gained in this study will help us to know the extent of the damage poverty caused educational development and ways through which the anomaly can be ameliorated.

At the end of the findings of this work, the government should be made to know that it has a role to play in the abridgement of the income inequality between the rich and the poor so that the latter could afford the training expenses of their wards.

 

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTION

This study shall carry out on the following research questions.

  • How does poverty affect the performance level of Federal Polytechnic Oko student?
  • What do the citizens do when they do not have access to education as a result of poverty?
  • Has the Federal Government or international organization helped in reducing poverty and improving the state of education of the poor?

 

1.5       THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

As a result of the plethora of problems infesting this study, the researcher has decided to concentrate only on the effect of poverty on educational development of F.P.O student. It is pertinent to note that poverty affects other facts of human life but for the purpose of this study, the focus is on educational development.

1.7       DEFINITION TERMS

P.O Federal Polytechnic, Oko. This is the institution where the researcher carried out her work.

PER CAPITAL INCOME: This is the income which every individual is supposed to earn in a country. It is calculated by dividing the value of the National Income with the total number of people (population) in a country.

INCOME: This is the money one earns or get from the work he/she did or from investment one make.

UNICEF: United Nations Children Fund.

UNO: United Nations Organization. A group made up of the rich and developed countries and some developing countries. It is established to take care of the world’s political and economic problems.

POVERTY: This is a state of having far less limited resources against numerous wants, where a person is incapable to providing all his basic necessities of life like food, clothes and shelter.

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