EVALUATION OF ETHNICITY AND ISSUE OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

 AN EVALUATION OF ETHNICITY AND ISSUE OF POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE).
Ethnicity and political development in Nigeria has been a pending issues in Nigeria, click to download the full project work  from chapter one to end including abstract.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            The realm of politic is the field of greatest conflict in the   society. This is not surprising   since policies are the process whereby society arbitrates over power and allocation or score resource. However in modern western political dictionary political this ability  that been seen as characteristic  of the developing country  or countries in transition  in African  Latin American  and  Asia transition  in Africa  Latin America and Asia .

The political disability in African countries could  be attributed to  many factors ranging from the frequently from the  frequency of militating coup to political violence and civil  disorders, which are all as a result  of the  existence and  dominance of social elenge such as religion,  regionalism  tribalism and most especially  ethnicity. Ethnicity in our political life having proved uncontrollable deserves serious attention. It is evident that this Nigeria, which can be seen from the frequent changes of government and coup date in the country. This study is therefore going to concentrate on how the problem of ethnicity has affected the political development of Nigeria.

Nigeria is a nation whose history is replete with numerous and varied existing and political threats to national political development. In colonial era till date, the sad yet unfortunate story has been that of one geo-ethnic group attempting to assert and, in the process, establish her hegemony over the other, perceived as posing a veritable   threat to its very existence. Consequent  upon this  alleged threat of  dominance  it has  become  fashionable  to see a particular  sub national group  treating  session  from  the  rest of  the federation unit  on the  basis of   on from  of disaffection  or the  other. For instance in 1953 the Northern segment of the country called for session in the following year. It was  the west, therefore, secession  urges became  dormant  a determines   attempt  to out  of Nigeria  to constitute in self into  an independent  entity. It is necessary to state that these secession attempted his greatly affected the political development of Nigeria. How these various   secession attempted   has affected political development of Nigeria  will be   discussed in subsequent chapter.

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria  by over four hundred  ethnic  group  with each  having m it own language   and tradition  the dominant  ethnic  groups as we have  noted  above  are the Hausa- Fulani   in the North,  the Yoruba’s  in the  and the Igbo’s in the East.

Nigeria was formed  by the  gradual incorporation  of different areas and people  into which  empire  from 1861 onward   and  took it final  shape in 1914 the  Amalgam a  nation of the Southern and Northern  protectorates  in 1939 the Southern   protectorate  was divided into  Eastern and Western regions there are yet other force  within each of these dominant regions. These were the  minorities are those  who are  shadowed and discriminated  against by the three major ethnic  groups in the  North, there is the  middle  belt, the west had mid-west  and the  Calabar  Ogoja river (COR) area in the  eat.

From  above  analysis one is led  to  believe that the  claims of separate  social  group  must   necessary  be incompatible  with the demands  of the  w hole social  group this  is not usually, the  case  for instance  there  are  French and English  speaking condition  in  Canada  Creak and Shovas in Czecholo Vakia, the French  Italian and German in Switzerland

No doubt political instability affect the political as well as economic development of any   nation  but it consequence  are often  exaggerated. It  has  been  argued that political instability is inherent  in and country  but the ability of the  political system to certain  stress generated  within  it at any  given  time  determines  political  instability. While  rejecting  this  argument, it is   important to  note  that the British introduced  ethnicity  into  Nigeria polities  during the  colonial period  and what  they did  at  independence  was  to create a political  system hat was  unable  to contain the  stress generated  by this  ethnicity

Thus a British colonial governor characterized  Nigeria as a collection of Self contained and mutually independent native state. Separated  from  one mother and  tradition and by  ethnological  racial, tribal political social and religion  Barrier’s (Clifford  1920)  it is not clamed hat hetegenous cultural  background  does not  affect political  stability, the ability to weld the different  ethnic groups together  is the  process of  nation building, which is  not  an easy ask. It involves  the transformation of the  pre-colonial political  entire  of the   societies with the Nigeria  temporary   into a virile  political  culture  the would  sustain the Nigeria state. When the alien culture of Europe impinged on the existing societies is credited a problem of adjustment which required new technique and ideas to deal with the new order. Incidentally the instability as a result of ethnicity  and other  social colleagues  which permeated the Nigeria  political  scenes, this  has consequently  affected the  political  development of  Nigeria.

What made ethnicity to assume  an  alarming proportion  in the  polities  of Nigeria was  that  the focus of each of the dominant ethnic  group  was on equal  share of race-course.

The question was who get what, how and by how much. They wanted to maximize their individual security the control of the   lion-share of the country source resource

Today the biggest threat to nation political development   is that of lack of unity. In the absence of duty of a kind to will became difficult to define common national  objective  identification of a  common  economy. The greatest threat to unity today is ethnicity.

This  work  is therefore  throughout  a comitial review of the  problem  of ethnicity  and it  effect  on  the political development of Nigeria since independence till  date.

MEMORANDUM OF DELTA STATE 

Nigeria  came into being as a result  of the  empirical amalgamation in 1914 of the  protectorate  of Northern Nigeria one the  one hand, and of Southern Nigeria and they  colony of Lagos  on the  other hand.  This brought together communities of diverse  peoples and culture which  evolved into an independent  sovereign nation in 1960. However, Nigeria continues to face   a number of  challenge  and induced  by  the Justice,  inequity and unfair  inherent in this internal socio-political  arrangements. For the to develop into a strong nation deliberates efforts must be made to deal with these factors.

Delta state is made up of five major nationalistic, with a combined population of over 4 million people. This figure is an undercount as we shall indicate in a later section under  census. The state was created out of the former Bendel state in 1991. it has  a geographical area  on 17440 square  kilometer consisting of  dry land wetland creak  rivers  swamps, extensive  existence  coastline  and continental shelf. Of this geographical area   about 60, percent is made   of its population   live on the swampy river-line parts and their   traditional  occupation and  mainstay s mostly  farming and fishing.

In addition to agricultural and solid mineral resources, the state is endowed with enormous oil   and gas reserves. Delta state  has been   the  major producer of crude oil and natural gas  in Nigeria  since 1958  when first  well  were  drilled  by the  shell petroleum development company. As celebrate n the   pamphlet. the  story of shell B.P (1972) The discovery of  oil in  the  western  Nigeria Delta  established Nigeria firmly as a  major  world producer   of  oil.

This view of the   primary of Delta state in the oil economy is confirmed by the late M.O Feyider, Nigeria former  secretary   of the  organization of petroleum  exporting  countries (OPEC). During the executive directorship of Dimafume Onoge. Also G.G.  Darah Delta state from group captain Luke Ochulor Felix Ibru-To James Ibori. The  failure   of the  1999 constitution to provide  for his this diversity in the nations  political  structure  has become  a major source  of  our current difficulties. As a direct consequence of the concentration of powers and resources in the  federal government under 1999 construction. Nigeria  has been  purged  into an unending  series of  crisis  upon crisis  since the  commencement   of the   so-called   fourth  republic  on 27th  May, 1999. The country is concurrently confronted with:

  1. Fierce competition for the capture of power at the center leading to overheating  and  instability of the polity. Mutual  supervision and  fears   of  domination  and marginalization  between  ethnic  state leading  to  the rise of ethnic militias   and violet conflict .

on the  fifth and   last day, the tempo of the festival rises with  increased booming of  cannon  guns and echoes  of Joyans Song by some  gifted  women singer:. Expert tempters blow their thrilling tune in praise of the Obi Okpala-Uku or Diokpa and t he prominent farmers of the land.

On this day large quantities of yams are roasted, cleared and   mixed with fresh or fried oil.  Everybody partake of it. Some quantities of it are sent to friend well wishers, finances and others, an action which reflects to bond of cordial relationship. On this day two meat of all the goat slaughtered the   previous day share among the people. More dancing and merriment continue with boys and girls arranging special get-together to mark the occasion. During the last two  days of the  festival,  the  houses of the titles men and women, the Iyase, the Odogwu, the Onu and others  are  scene   of great  festivities  with several  visitor from far. These   personalities, by virtues of their special position in the town, bear  a great  burden  of the festival  and are   often fully  stretched to meet the demand  of their.

The impart of Iwaji  on the people in such  that many  opinion  have been expressed in an  attempt to  discern the motive  of  their  forefather in evolving the age-ling  festival. The social seventies sees the festival as a deconstruction   of the people communities of interest. The agriculturist say it was intended to serve as an impetus to woven white shirt dance   round the village, some their elephant tusk trumpets. Goats and cock are slaughtered before the family shrine  by Ndichhie and Nze.

Libation are poured and the spirit  of the dead  ancestors  are involved to share the joys of new session everywhere the music of wooden  group throb in the palaces   of Obi’s and other   traditional  rulers.

Before he ritual  ceremonies, the  shrine  including  the god of the farm  Ifejioku are  purified  by young Virgins (Umuada) with eggs and  chicken tied on piece of  young palm  frond   and  dragged  around the premises reciting  from shrines and so   make them  worshipable. After the  scarified before the  family shrine  by Nze  food is cooked and all present parake   of the  pounded yam   which must be  tested first by  the Obi  or Diokpa  of each   family group. This is followed by merriment. Rejoicing and   dancing particularly by the young   ones, who eat and drink with abandon singing. In beautiful traditional attire and in the case of ladies with  headiest, neckless earrings to match. They dance in group round their respective communities according to   their age-grades. They  provides  themselves  with  various   item of respondent, including Kola Nuts  soft  drinks  and  local  gin, in the  evening  of  this  day. Small children hold mock market with several odd things. Including pick of new yams, the means of exchange   is the cowry.

CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE    

Iwaji (New yam) festival  is one of the  oldest  and most  revered   traditional  festival of the  people  of Delta  North  arise of state where  farming constitutes the  main  source f the  people  live hood.

Although here are slight  differences  in  name and mode of celebration from place  to  in  the area, the festival s essential  an  occasion   of great job and happiness among the people  for it. Political development in Nigeria

Marks  the end of the period of  famine and the beginning  of the  season of plenty  like many other  traditional festivals Iwaji  no fixed date. It is however invariably celebrates annually in the first or second week of September. It last for about five days. Great preparation are usually made for the festival and the timing is determined by a   council of elder with the Diokpa (Oldest man)   or the Obi each town  presiding.  They are usually guided in their  by the phase of the third day the  farmer  and all members of their families  go  to the farm to collect new  yams, many which are sent  as present   by husbands to their  parent  in-law and to their dear ones as a  token of friendship.

The actual celebration starts on the  fourth day which is usually the  native resting day called Eke. On this  day guns boom, and the  Obi’s and Diokpa clad in traditional increases   productivity, the not-too serious  minded man  in the street  does not  even  associate  the any conscious attempt by the ancestors to attain  and end, but rather regards it a  mere  passions or revelry. whatever the various interpretation , the people f this area  regard the festival  as native reward  for  hard work and also a reminder f the importance of farming  in  their  lives  this  no doubt, why  the people turn  out in fall   pomp and pageantry  during the  occasion.

Democracy after  seven  years of democracy   in Nigeria  oil company  from all  over the world are  keen to  gain  a foothold on the Gulf  of gummer the “Next  Gulf” last year   in Bayelsa  state the  poisonous   mixture  emitted by gas  flaring, a  practice  that has  now been  beamed  by  Nigeria court  caused  5,000 cases of respiratory  disease and some  120,000 the population  affecting the food chain  thousand of environmental refuge  leaves the  earlier of the  Beyalsa  for the  Ghetoes  of Port- Harcourt   or Ajegule ,  on the   out –shirts of Lagos, the economic capital.

A weapon you never get is back. Once the election was over, these   people took  to crimes  with he exercise  they has been  betrayed fighting between  military  groups caused  frequent  causalities, including Shel, Cherron, Agip  or Total, which along with  other  foreign companies enjoy some  of the highest  profit  margins in the  world- the shell petroleum development company of Nigeria which produces 43% of Nigeria  crude loses 10%   of it production  every day  through  sabotage and  illegal siphoning. On 18 February the movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (mend) Kidnapped nine foreign executives working for a shell  sub-contractors . after releasing six  of them on 1 March  mend  decided to  increase  attack announcing  five days latter would  no longer  seek  kidnap hostage but  would  instead  shoot   to  kill the Nigeria  Army regularly  targets  such  gang  for  brutal repriests. The oil companies which hire private security firms to protect their facilities often support such attacks Cherron Nigeria (a subsidiary of Cherron). The leading, is export of Nigeria crude  lent the federal government is technical at  Escravos  and t  helicopters, so that government force could  raid communalities  hostile  to the  company, the oil firm  play on local rivalries.

The Ijaw people of Bayelsa state, Nigeria fourth largest ethnic group believe Alamuyeseigha is being persecuted for supporting resource control. He demands that half of the revenue from Oil should be set aside from where it was produced, rather than the allocation of 13% stipulated in the constitution. this was why he  received  an  hero  welcome on his return to the  Bayelsa State Capital, Yanegoa  where nearly three  quarters  of the population  survive on less  than  a day and more than 10 years after the execution  of the  writer Sarowiwa, an opponent of  the military dictator, General Sani Abacha  the   of the Bayelsa are  looking for  heroes. But today’s idol are dubious figures, dabbling in political activities and economic banditry.

Consider lhaji Asari Dokubo volunteer orce (NDPUF) ARESTED LIST August for posing a threat to the sovereignty of the state.  Asari 40 is the son of a local Ijaw notable. He made his name in the early 1990, play an active art in student violence in the Delta universities. He is typical  of a certain  class, unable to do  anything  but watch, powerless as the potential  benefit  of an  oil based economy slip  through  it  finger, a militant attack for the local branch of the rubbing.

The People Democratic Party (PDP) intimates the apposition. But when you give difficult task. However, it must  be pointed out here what  would  make for political  development and the  unity  of the  economy  are also  within  these divisive force and are examined   under  recommendations.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 

The problem of ethnicity religion and culture exists world wide. The problems are experienced in both   the advanced and developing countries, for example the problems abound in America, India and Chad.

Back home, in Nigeria, which is the focus of this research, the impart of ethnicity become more divesting. Most observers of Nigeria politics are agreed about the central role of primordialism in Nigeria political process. This prevalence is evident from the electoral process to the political   behavoiur   of the Nigeria electorates. For instance, there was the election crisis on Western Nigeria in 1964 and 1965 respectively, which incriminated in the  then Tafawa Belewa government  declaring a state of  emergency in  area. Another example was in 1967 when Nigeria was plunge into Cauldron of a thirty month fratricidal war. It was a nation   overtaken by ethnic enthauvinism.

Ethnicity  constitute  a real  problem to national  political development, it is against  this background  that it  sources   necessary  to  state the problem  thus,  first people  think  act  not  in  nation but in ethnic terms. This sub-national particularism constitute an impediment integration  and  political  development, second, ethnic  cultural; and religion orientation make  efforts aimed  making Nigeria a united country a very  raining, widening of any  intellectual  horizon  which,  prior  tom this  project  was  ostensibly parochial. It is also a source of motivation to me. As indicated by the title, this study is an examination f the problem of ethnicity and it effects Nigeria political development. This  study  will cover the period of the Nigeria political  development  starting  from the  colonial  period  is during the  nationalist  struggle for decolonization to contemporary Nigeria political  i.e from  Igbo, when Nigeria got her political independent  and thus became sovereign state to  data.

In this study events from the  colonial period  to the time of  independent  and  after, that prompted the emergence  of  ethnicity in the Nigeria  political science are explained.

The Nigeria politics before independents was under the directions of the British government. The Nigerian government has changes hard several times since 1960. The first republic was born in 1960 and it ended in a military coup in 1966. Since then different regime and administration have come and gone, which will be discussed here in relation to the political climate in Nigeria.

As given and does not by explain how it come to be  centrally  place in Nigeria  politics. In  other words,  it does not  tells the origin  of primordialism in Nigeria  politics ,  nether  does it tell  us the factors that have sustaining  it within the Nigeria  political system. This research will attempt to explain all these.

This study is also called out because of the concern for  the increasingly  important  nature of ethnicity in contemporary  Nigeria politics. Again it is to provide a basis  for corporative analysis of political events in the first and second  republic  as well as the military regime and also as a  plant  form  for analysis  the  third republic  finally,  this  study desire to  suggest  way of minimizing political  stress  and the effects of ethnicity on the political  development  of Nigeria.

This work will, I hope contribute to the knowledge and understanding of this phenomenon.

1.3       PURPOSED OF THE STUDY

Basically the purpose of this study is to    gain understanding of the effects of primordialism particularly ethnicity on Nigeria political development.

It is our belief that because of the dominance of primordialism in Nigeria polities. Some analyst   entirely from the perspective, the impression of given that the political process is determined and controlled by primordial elements. Shortcoming  and defects  of the  Nigeria political system are as resulting  fro  this  phenomenon, thus  their resolution is seen as  laying in  balancing  these primordial interest.

It is   our belief that while it is   possible to have some awareness of the nature of Nigeria from this perspective as an explanatory framework, it is highly   defective. It is defective because it simple takes the question of primordialisms.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE   OF THE STUDY

It  is  my sincere belief that the result  of this research  work  on the concept of ethnicity and the issue of political  development in Nigeria  may constitute  and invaluable  rudimentary material for  future  researches. However at this undergraduate level, much have been my benefits from this understanding, these include  ample

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

 The research questions includes: –

  1. Do you think there has been  free and  fare  election in Nigeria?
  2. Has ethnicity done more harm than good in issue of political development in Nigeria?
  3. Does Nigeria political leaders embrace ethnicity that resulted to crisis?
  4. Do you think there is political development in Nigeria?
  5. Do you believe this ethnicity  problem  is to be caused by colonial masters  through indirect rule?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

As indicated  by the title, this study is an examination of the problem of ethnicity and its effects on Nigeria political  development  starting from the colonial periodic during the nationalist  struggle for decolonization  to  contemporary Nigeria politics (i.e from 1960) when Nigeria  got  her political independents  and thus  became a  sovereign state to date.

In this study   crisis in Bayelsa and Delta state which happened of recent that prompt the emergency of ethnicity   in the state political science are explained. The Nigeria government have changed have several time since 1960. The first republic was born in 1960 and it ended in a military coup in 1960.  since  different  regime and administration  here come  and  gone, which will be  discussed  here in  relation to the political  eliminate in Nigeria. Political development in Nigeria

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

No doubt, there are many and varied sensed in which a particular world can be used.  This single   usage deficiency of a word tends of blur understanding of individual readers.  These words are as follows:-

  • Primordialism
  • Ethnicity
  • Political development

Primordialism: By primordialism, we mean the see and manipulation of primordial sentiment ethnicity sectionalism religious etc for  political purposes.  

Ethnicity: The term ethnicity is used refer to ethnic groups whose member, exhibits common attitudes such as language, religion and culture history and orientation or inclination towards their future. Political development in Nigeria

Political development: As some authors are defined t, it is the progressive reduction of ethnic cultural and religion tension and element of non-continuities in the   process of creating   a virtually  homogenous constitutional and economic development, tending to the attainment of a viable  political culture.

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